2017-Present: Post-doctoral researcher at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (Germany)
2021: Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology and Cognitive Science, University of Trento (Italy)
2015-2017: Post-doctoral researcher at the Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialisation,
Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy)
Supervisor: Dr. Claudio Mulatti
2011-2015: PhD in Cognitive and Brain Science from Macquarie University, funded by a university
Awarded without corrections (25/3/15)
Supervisors: Dr. Eva Marinus, Prof. Max Coltheart, and Prof. Anne Castles
Thesis title: Methodological and theoretical issues in cross-linguistic reading research
2017: Graduate Certificate of Statistics at the University of Sheffield (UK) (Distance education)
2015: PhD in Cognitive and Brain Science from Macquarie University (Sydney, Australia)
2011: Bachelor of Science (Psychology) (Honours) from the Australian National University
2nd class, 1st division
2010: Non-award studies at the University of New England (Armidale, NSW, Australia)
Introductory Genetics and Linguistics
2009: Bachelor of Science (Psychology) from the Australian National University
Major studies in Psychology; distinction average
2008: Exchange semester at Stockholm University
Studies in Psychology and Swedish as a second language
2006: Higher School Certificate from Armidale High School (NSW, Australia)
Schmalz, X., Birrun Manresa, J., & Zhang, L. (in press). What is a Bayes factor? Psychological Methods. Preprint: https://osf.io/vgqbt/
Schmalz, X., Treccani, B., & Mulatti, C. (2021). Developmental dyslexia, reading acquisition, and statistical learning: A sceptic's guide. Brain Sciences, 11(9), 1143.
de Simone, E., Beyersmann, E., Mulatti, C., Mirault, J., & Schmalz, X. (2021). Order among chaos: Cross-linguistic differences and developmental trajectories in pseudoword reading aloud using pronunciation entropy. Plos One, 16(5), e0251629.
Schmalz, X., Schulte-Körne, G., de Simone, E., & Moll, K. (2021). What do Artificial Orthography Learning tasks actually measure? Correlations within and across tasks. Journal of Cognition, 4(1).
Schmalz, X., Robidoux, S., Castles, A., & Marinus, E. (2020). Variations in the use of simple and context-sensitive grapheme-phoneme correspondences in English and German developing readers. Annals of Dyslexia, 1-20.
Galuschka, K., Görgen, R., Kalmar, J., Haberstroh, S., Schmalz, X., & Schulte-Körne, G. (2020). Effectiveness of spelling interventions for learners with dyslexia: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Educational Psychologist, 55(1), 1-20
Schmalz, X., Moll, K., Mulatti, C., & Schulte-Körne, G. (2019). Is statistical learning related to reading ability, and if so, why? Scientific Studies of Reading, 23(1), 64-76. Preprint: https://osf.io/fqdnh/.
Schmalz, X., & Mulatti, C. (2018). Busting a myth with the Bayes
Factor: Effects of letter bigram frequency in visual lexical
decision do not reflect reading processes. The Mental Lexicon, 12(2).
Schmalz, X., Altoè, G., & Mulatti, C. (2017). Statistical learning and dyslexia: a systematic review. Annals of Dyslexia, 67(2). 147-162. doi:10.1007/s11881-016-0136-0
Schmalz, X., Porshnev, A., & Marinus, E. (2017). Two distinct parsing stages in nonword reading aloud: Evidence from Russian. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70(12). 2548-2559doi:10.1080/17470218.2016.1247895
Schmalz, X., Robidoux, S., Castles, A., Coltheart, M., & Marinus, E. (2017). German and English bodies: No evidence for cross-linguistic differences in preferred grain size. Collabra, 3(1). 5. doi: 10.1525/collabra.72
Schmalz, X., Beyersmann, E., Cavalli, E., & Marinus, E. (2016). Unpredictability and complexity of print-to-speech correspondences increase reliance on lexical processes: More evidence for the Orthographic Depth Hypothesis. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 28(6). 658-672 doi: 10.1080/20445911.2016.1182172
Schmalz, X., Marinus, E., Coltheart, M., & Castles, A. (2015). Getting to the bottom of orthographic depth. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 22(6), 1614-1629. doi: 10.3758/s13423-015-0835-2
Schmalz, X., Treccani, B., & Mulatti, C. (2015). Distinguishing Target From Distractor in Stroop, Picture–Word, and Word–Word Interference Tasks. Frontiers in Psychology, 6. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01858
Schmalz, X., Marinus, E., Robidoux, S., Palethorpe, S., Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2014). Quantifying the reliance on different sublexical correspondences in German and English. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 26(8), 831-852. doi: 10.1080/20445911.2014.968161
Schmalz, X., Marinus, E., & Castles, A. (2013). Phonological decoding or direct access?
Regularity effects in lexical decisions of Grade 3 and 4 children. Quarterly Journal of
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66(2), 338-346. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2012.711843
Schmalz, X. (2016). The power is in collaboration: Developing international networks to
increase the reproducibility of science. The Winnower, 3:e146178.82672. doi: 10.15200/winn.146178.82672
Schmalz, X. (2016, September). Some thoughts on methodological terrorism. Blog post featured by
PLOS ERC Community. Retrieved from: http://blogs.plos.org/thestudentblog/2016/09/30/some-thoughts-on-methodological-terrorism/
Schmalz, X. (2016, March). Good scientist or successful academic? You can’t be both. Blog post
featured by Times Higher Education. Retrieved from: www.timeshighereducation.com/blog/ good-scientist-or-successful-academic-you-cant-be-both
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) (2019-2021) Project: Neurocognitive processes
underlying the learning of letter-sound correspondences. (€48,700)
Fellow-Programm “Freies Wissen” (2018-2019) Project: Effects of complexity and
unpredictability on reading acquisition: Behavioural and computational studies. (€5000)
German Academic Exchange Services (DAAD) (2018): Travel stipend
(Kongressreisestipendium) to attend the Annual Meeting of the Society of the Scientific Studies of Reading in Brighton, July 2018. (€700)
LMU Excellent Travel Award (2018): Travel stipend to attend the International Meeting of the
Psychonomic Society in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, May 2018 (€1036).
Università degli Studi di Padova (2015 - 2016). Project: What is orthographic depth?
Behavioural and computational studies. Awarded to Mulatti, C., Castles, A., Coltheart, M., Schmalz, X., & Marinus, E. ($69,762)
R: Data processing & analysis; linear mixed effect models, Bayesian analyses, Bayesian &
Python: Data visualisation, data processing & analysis, basic computational modelling
Manuscript preparation: In LaTeX (bibtex) and Microsoft Word (EndNote)
SPSS, Excel and JASP: Data processing, ANOVA, regression (Bayesian & frequentist)
Native speaker of English, German, and Russian
Italian: Completed advanced (level C1) language course at Padova University (2015)
Swedish: Completed intermediate-level language course at Stockholm University (2008)
French: Completed intermediate-level language course at the Australian National University (2008)
Czech: Attending intermediate-level language course at Tschechisches Zentrum München (2018)
2017-Present: Co-organiser of the Improving Psychological Science Journal Club at the Ludwig-
2017-Present: Member of the editorial board of the Journal of Cognition (official journal of the
European Society of Cognitive Psychology)
2016-Present: Ambassador of the Open Science Framework
2015-2016: Co-supervision of 4 bachelor theses
and 2 masters theses at Padova University (with
Prof. Claudio Mulatti)
2015-2016: Guest lecture for undergraduate Psycholinguistics course at Padova University. Title:
“L’apprendimento della lettura, e la dislessia” [Reading development and dyslexia]
2015-Present: Blogger on research methods and statistics in psycholinguistics
2015-Present: Member of the European Society of Cognitive Psychology (ESCoP).
2013-2014: Co-organiser of the Macquarie University Reading and Dyslexia seminar and
2013-Ongoing: Reviewer for Cognition; Scientific Studies of Reading; Journal of Experimental
Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition; Research in Developmental Disabilities; Journal of Cognitive Psychology; Language Learning & Development; Journal of Learning Disabilities; Acta Psychologica; Studies in Second Language Acquisition; Journal of Research in Reading; Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism
2011-2012: Co-organiser of department seminars at the Department of Cognitive Science